I thought with the launch of our new Setting Thesaurus, I'd take a quick look at how setting description can transcend to convey atmosphere through the deft manipulation of the five senses.
First off, what is Atmosphere?
Atmosphere is the mood created through the deliberate description of setting. Depending on the emotion you wish to evoke in your reader during a scene, the description can be slanted to reinforce what you want to project.
Let's say your scene involves a character exploring an abandoned school for clues of criminal activity to solve a mystery. The description you show regarding the school should affect what emotion your audience feels as they read.
If you're trying to create an atmosphere for tension and fear, showing your character draw a line in the dust over a heart with MB + TW Forever carved on one of the desks or noting how the chalk and erasers lined up at the board look like they're waiting to be picked up isn't the way to achieve it. Instead your reader will feel melancholy and sadness that this school once so full of potential has now become obsolete.
But what if the encounter happened at night? Watery moonlight would filter through the smeared windows, blurring the edges of the desks. Shadows would sprawl out from the corners and curl through the room, and the stillness would be broken by ominous creaking. The protest of an abandoned building, or perhaps something else?
This type of description is closer to creating the right atmosphere for tension and fear.
Tips on creating atmosphere
1) Never forget the sense of hearing
Sounds trigger memories, so if you choose a sound to describe your setting that has obvious context (like a creaky old building) the reader will immediately recognize it and internalize it into a personal sensory image.
2) Use visual clues to lead the reader toward what is coming
Think The Sixth Sense here. (Spoiler Alert!) There were many clues that pointed to the fact that Dr. Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis) was actually dead (the color red being present only when the dead were featured; how all of his clothing were combinations of what he wore the day he was shot; how no one spoke to him or seemed to notice his presence but the boy Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment) etc). Each of these were clues leading to the truth and the ultimate revelation of his death. Similarly in writing, what you choose to describe in the setting should also harmonize with what the scene is about, and lead the reader toward recognition and empathy of the characters' emotions.
3) Lighting is important
We need to look no further than the film industry to know how lighting can create atmosphere. How many love stories take place in well-lit rooms, on a sun-drenched beach or a warm, sunny park? Alternatively, how many horror films take place on dark and stormy nights when the power mysteriously goes out, leaving everyone fumbling in the darkness?
A simple shadow falling across a person's face can change the way they look dramatically, and the same can be done in your scene. Make the lighting work for you.
4) The sense of smell is evocative
A path in the forest reeking of mouldering leaves and rotting dead fall creates a different mental picture than one filled with the scent of sweet wildflowers and sharp pine needles.
5) Chose each word with intent
The language choices you make will greatly affect atmosphere. Pick words that deliberately convey the meaning you're going for. Strong verbs, nouns and modifiers mean you can say more using less words.
The mood and atmosphere you create should enhance what your characters are experiencing in any given scene, drawing the reader more tightly into the story. Vivid, tactile description plant the reader into the setting and leave them sympathetic to the plight of your characters.
What do you take into consideration when creating a mood or atmosphere?